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authorGravatar Jiang Xin <worldhello.net@gmail.com> 2021-08-06 11:07:48 +0800
committerGravatar Jiang Xin <worldhello.net@gmail.com> 2021-08-15 10:55:16 +0800
commitcb92e2838480f70dfab888015e28889f4ff1eadd (patch)
tree9a66d601e270249eb8b89a9bea424157250d31c3
parentfb2aacea6746b6df081f5fed41e8451e29ef4d7c (diff)
downloadgit-cb92e2838480f70dfab888015e28889f4ff1eadd.tar.gz
git-cb92e2838480f70dfab888015e28889f4ff1eadd.zip
l10n: README: refactor to use GFM syntax
Format README.md using GFM (GitHub Flavored Markdown) syntax. - In order to use more than 3 level headings, use ATX style headings instead of setext style headings. - In order to add highlights for code blocks, use fenced code blocks instead of indented code blocks. Signed-off-by: Jiang Xin <worldhello.net@gmail.com>
-rw-r--r--po/README.md395
1 files changed, 223 insertions, 172 deletions
diff --git a/po/README.md b/po/README.md
index a7e6f2014c..dcd8436c25 100644
--- a/po/README.md
+++ b/po/README.md
@@ -1,5 +1,4 @@
-Core GIT Translations
-=====================
+# Core GIT Translations
This directory holds the translations for the core of Git. This document
describes how you can contribute to the effort of enhancing the language
@@ -8,14 +7,14 @@ coverage and maintaining the translation.
The localization (l10n) coordinator, Jiang Xin <worldhello.net@gmail.com>,
coordinates our localization effort in the l10 coordinator repository:
- https://github.com/git-l10n/git-po/
+ https://github.com/git-l10n/git-po/
-The two character language translation codes are defined by ISO_639-1, as
+The two character language translation codes are defined by ISO\_639-1, as
stated in the gettext(1) full manual, appendix A.1, Usual Language Codes.
-Contributing to an existing translation
----------------------------------------
+## Contributing to an existing translation
+
As a contributor for a language XX, you should first check TEAMS file in
this directory to see whether a dedicated repository for your language XX
exists. Fork the dedicated repository and start to work if it exists.
@@ -28,10 +27,10 @@ For this case, wrong translations should be reported and fixed through
their workflows.
-Creating a new language translation
------------------------------------
+## Creating a new language translation
+
If you are the first contributor for the language XX, please fork this
-repository, prepare and/or update the translated message file po/XX.po
+repository, prepare and/or update the translated message file "po/XX.po"
(described later), and ask the l10n coordinator to pull your work.
If there are multiple contributors for the same language, please first
@@ -40,8 +39,8 @@ language, so that the l10n coordinator only needs to interact with one
person per language.
-Core translation
-----------------
+## Core translation
+
The core translation is the smallest set of work that must be completed
for a new language translation. Because there are more than 5000 messages
in the template message file "po/git.pot" that need to be translated,
@@ -51,21 +50,25 @@ The core template message file which contains a small set of messages
will be generated in "po-core/core.pot" automatically by running a helper
program named "git-po-helper" (described later).
- git-po-helper init --core XX.po
+```shell
+git-po-helper init --core XX.po
+```
After translating the generated "po-core/XX.po", you can merge it to
"po/XX.po" using the following commands:
- msgcat po-core/XX.po po/XX.po -s -o /tmp/XX.po
- mv /tmp/XX.po po/XX.po
- git-po-helper update XX.po
+```shell
+msgcat po-core/XX.po po/XX.po -s -o /tmp/XX.po
+mv /tmp/XX.po po/XX.po
+git-po-helper update XX.po
+```
Edit "po/XX.po" by hand to fix "fuzzy" messages, which may have misplaced
translated messages and duplicate messages.
-Translation Process Flow
-------------------------
+## Translation Process Flow
+
The overall data-flow looks like this:
+-------------------+ +------------------+
@@ -79,21 +82,20 @@ The overall data-flow looks like this:
| Language Team XX |
+------------------+
- * Translatable strings are marked in the source file.
- * L10n coordinator pulls from the source (1)
- * L10n coordinator updates the message template po/git.pot
- * Language team pulls from L10n coordinator (2)
- * Language team updates the message file po/XX.po
- * L10n coordinator pulls from Language team (3)
- * L10n coordinator asks the result to be pulled (4).
+- Translatable strings are marked in the source file.
+- L10n coordinator pulls from the source (1)
+- L10n coordinator updates the message template "po/git.pot"
+- Language team pulls from L10n coordinator (2)
+- Language team updates the message file "po/XX.po"
+- L10n coordinator pulls from Language team (3)
+- L10n coordinator asks the result to be pulled (4).
-Maintaining the po/git.pot file
--------------------------------
+## Maintaining the "po/git.pot" file
(This is done by the l10n coordinator).
-The po/git.pot file contains a message catalog extracted from Git's
+The "po/git.pot" file contains a message catalog extracted from Git's
sources. The l10n coordinator maintains it by adding new translations with
msginit(1), or update existing ones with msgmerge(1). In order to update
the Git sources to extract the messages from, the l10n coordinator is
@@ -105,62 +107,68 @@ Language contributors use this file to prepare translations for their
language, but they are not expected to modify it.
-Initializing a XX.po file
--------------------------
+## Initializing a "XX.po" file
(This is done by the language teams).
-If your language XX does not have translated message file po/XX.po yet,
+If your language XX does not have translated message file "po/XX.po" yet,
you add a translation for the first time by running:
- msginit --locale=XX
+```shell
+msginit --locale=XX
+```
-in the po/ directory, where XX is the locale, e.g. "de", "is", "pt_BR",
-"zh_CN", etc.
+in the "po/" directory, where XX is the locale, e.g. "de", "is", "pt\_BR",
+"zh\_CN", etc.
-Then edit the automatically generated copyright info in your new XX.po
+Then edit the automatically generated copyright info in your new "XX.po"
to be correct, e.g. for Icelandic:
- @@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
- -# Icelandic translations for PACKAGE package.
- -# Copyright (C) 2010 THE PACKAGE'S COPYRIGHT HOLDER
- -# This file is distributed under the same license as the PACKAGE package.
- +# Icelandic translations for Git.
- +# Copyright (C) 2010 Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <avarab@gmail.com>
- +# This file is distributed under the same license as the Git package.
- # Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <avarab@gmail.com>, 2010.
+```diff
+@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
+-# Icelandic translations for PACKAGE package.
+-# Copyright (C) 2010 THE PACKAGE'S COPYRIGHT HOLDER
+-# This file is distributed under the same license as the PACKAGE package.
++# Icelandic translations for Git.
++# Copyright (C) 2010 Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <avarab@gmail.com>
++# This file is distributed under the same license as the Git package.
+ # Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <avarab@gmail.com>, 2010.
+```
And change references to PACKAGE VERSION in the PO Header Entry to
just "Git":
- perl -pi -e 's/(?<="Project-Id-Version: )PACKAGE VERSION/Git/' XX.po
+```shell
+perl -pi -e 's/(?<="Project-Id-Version: )PACKAGE VERSION/Git/' XX.po
+```
Once you are done testing the translation (see below), commit the result
and ask the l10n coordinator to pull from you.
-Updating a XX.po file
----------------------
+## Updating a "XX.po" file
(This is done by the language teams).
-If you are replacing translation strings in an existing XX.po file to
+If you are replacing translation strings in an existing "XX.po" file to
improve the translation, just edit the file.
-If there's an existing XX.po file for your language, but the repository
-of the l10n coordinator has newer po/git.pot file, you would need to first
+If there's an existing "XX.po" file for your language, but the repository
+of the l10n coordinator has newer "po/git.pot" file, you would need to first
pull from the l10n coordinator (see the beginning of this document for its
URL), and then update the existing translation by running:
- msgmerge --add-location --backup=off -U XX.po git.pot
+```shell
+msgmerge --add-location --backup=off -U XX.po git.pot
+```
-in the po/ directory, where XX.po is the file you want to update.
+in the "po/" directory, where "XX.po" is the file you want to update.
Once you are done testing the translation (see below), commit the result
and ask the l10n coordinator to pull from you.
-Fuzzy translation
------------------
+
+## Fuzzy translation
Fuzzy translation is a translation marked by comment "fuzzy" to let you
know that the translation is out of date because the "msgid" has been
@@ -172,14 +180,15 @@ After fixing the corresponding translation, you must remove the "fuzzy"
tag in the comment.
-Testing your changes
---------------------
+## Testing your changes
-(This is done by the language teams, after creating or updating XX.po file).
+(This is done by the language teams, after creating or updating "XX.po" file).
Before you submit your changes go back to the top-level and do:
- make
+```shell
+make
+```
On systems with GNU gettext (i.e. not Solaris) this will compile your
changed PO file with `msgfmt --check`, the --check option flags many
@@ -188,8 +197,7 @@ messages that deviate from the originals in whether they begin/end
with a newline or not.
-Marking strings for translation
--------------------------------
+## Marking strings for translation
(This is done by the core developers).
@@ -202,132 +210,155 @@ gettext library, so most of the advice in your gettext documentation
General advice:
- - Don't mark everything for translation, only strings which will be
- read by humans (the porcelain interface) should be translated.
+- Don't mark everything for translation, only strings which will be
+ read by humans (the porcelain interface) should be translated.
- The output from Git's plumbing utilities will primarily be read by
- programs and would break scripts under non-C locales if it was
- translated. Plumbing strings should not be translated, since
- they're part of Git's API.
+ The output from Git's plumbing utilities will primarily be read by
+ programs and would break scripts under non-C locales if it was
+ translated. Plumbing strings should not be translated, since
+ they're part of Git's API.
- - Adjust the strings so that they're easy to translate. Most of the
- advice in `info '(gettext)Preparing Strings'` applies here.
+- Adjust the strings so that they're easy to translate. Most of the
+ advice in `info '(gettext)Preparing Strings'` applies here.
- - If something is unclear or ambiguous you can use a "TRANSLATORS"
- comment to tell the translators what to make of it. These will be
- extracted by xgettext(1) and put in the po/*.po files, e.g. from
- git-am.sh:
+- If something is unclear or ambiguous you can use a "TRANSLATORS"
+ comment to tell the translators what to make of it. These will be
+ extracted by xgettext(1) and put in the "po/\*.po" files, e.g. from
+ git-am.sh:
- # TRANSLATORS: Make sure to include [y], [n], [e], [v] and [a]
- # in your translation. The program will only accept English
- # input at this point.
- gettext "Apply? [y]es/[n]o/[e]dit/[v]iew patch/[a]ccept all "
+ ```shell
+ # TRANSLATORS: Make sure to include [y], [n], [e], [v] and [a]
+ # in your translation. The program will only accept English
+ # input at this point.
+ gettext "Apply? [y]es/[n]o/[e]dit/[v]iew patch/[a]ccept all "
+ ```
- Or in C, from builtin/revert.c:
+ Or in C, from builtin/revert.c:
- /* TRANSLATORS: %s will be "revert" or "cherry-pick" */
- die(_("%s: Unable to write new index file"), action_name(opts));
+ ```c
+ /* TRANSLATORS: %s will be "revert" or "cherry-pick" */
+ die(_("%s: Unable to write new index file"), action_name(opts));
+ ```
We provide wrappers for C, Shell and Perl programs. Here's how they're
used:
-C:
- - Include builtin.h at the top, it'll pull in gettext.h, which
- defines the gettext interface. Consult with the list if you need to
- use gettext.h directly.
+### C
+
+Include builtin.h at the top, it'll pull in gettext.h, which
+defines the gettext interface. Consult with the list if you need to
+use gettext.h directly.
+
+The C interface is a subset of the normal GNU gettext
+interface. We currently export these functions:
+
+- \_()
- - The C interface is a subset of the normal GNU gettext
- interface. We currently export these functions:
+ Mark and translate a string. E.g.:
- - _()
+ ```c
+ printf(_("HEAD is now at %s"), hex);
+ ```
- Mark and translate a string. E.g.:
+- Q\_()
- printf(_("HEAD is now at %s"), hex);
+ Mark and translate a plural string. E.g.:
- - Q_()
+ ```c
+ printf(Q_("%d commit", "%d commits", number_of_commits));
+ ```
- Mark and translate a plural string. E.g.:
+ This is just a wrapper for the ngettext() function.
- printf(Q_("%d commit", "%d commits", number_of_commits));
+- N\_()
- This is just a wrapper for the ngettext() function.
+ A no-op pass-through macro for marking strings inside static
+ initializations, e.g.:
- - N_()
+ ```c
+ static const char *reset_type_names[] = {
+ N_("mixed"), N_("soft"), N_("hard"), N_("merge"), N_("keep"), NULL
+ };
+ ```
- A no-op pass-through macro for marking strings inside static
- initializations, e.g.:
+ And then, later:
- static const char *reset_type_names[] = {
- N_("mixed"), N_("soft"), N_("hard"), N_("merge"), N_("keep"), NULL
- };
+ ```c
+ die(_("%s reset is not allowed in a bare repository"),
+ _(reset_type_names[reset_type]));
+ ```
- And then, later:
+ Here `_()` couldn't have statically determined what the translation
+ string will be, but since it was already marked for translation
+ with `N_()` the look-up in the message catalog will succeed.
- die(_("%s reset is not allowed in a bare repository"),
- _(reset_type_names[reset_type]));
- Here _() couldn't have statically determined what the translation
- string will be, but since it was already marked for translation
- with N_() the look-up in the message catalog will succeed.
+### Shell
-Shell:
+The Git gettext shell interface is just a wrapper for
+gettext.sh. Import it right after git-sh-setup like this:
- - The Git gettext shell interface is just a wrapper for
- gettext.sh. Import it right after git-sh-setup like this:
+```shell
+. git-sh-setup
+. git-sh-i18n
+```
- . git-sh-setup
- . git-sh-i18n
+And then use the `gettext` or `eval_gettext` functions:
- And then use the gettext or eval_gettext functions:
+```shell
+# For constant interface messages:
+gettext "A message for the user"; echo
- # For constant interface messages:
- gettext "A message for the user"; echo
+# To interpolate variables:
+details="oh noes"
+eval_gettext "An error occurred: \$details"; echo
+```
- # To interpolate variables:
- details="oh noes"
- eval_gettext "An error occurred: \$details"; echo
+In addition we have wrappers for messages that end with a trailing
+newline. I.e. you could write the above as:
- In addition we have wrappers for messages that end with a trailing
- newline. I.e. you could write the above as:
+```shell
+# For constant interface messages:
+gettextln "A message for the user"
- # For constant interface messages:
- gettextln "A message for the user"
+# To interpolate variables:
+details="oh noes"
+eval_gettextln "An error occurred: \$details"
+```
- # To interpolate variables:
- details="oh noes"
- eval_gettextln "An error occurred: \$details"
+More documentation about the interface is available in the GNU info
+page: `info '(gettext)sh'`. Looking at git-am.sh (the first shell
+command to be translated) for examples is also useful:
- More documentation about the interface is available in the GNU info
- page: `info '(gettext)sh'`. Looking at git-am.sh (the first shell
- command to be translated) for examples is also useful:
+```shell
+git log --reverse -p --grep=i18n git-am.sh
+```
- git log --reverse -p --grep=i18n git-am.sh
-Perl:
+### Perl
- - The Git::I18N module provides a limited subset of the
- Locale::Messages functionality, e.g.:
+The Git::I18N module provides a limited subset of the
+Locale::Messages functionality, e.g.:
- use Git::I18N;
- print __("Welcome to Git!\n");
- printf __("The following error occurred: %s\n"), $error;
+```perl
+use Git::I18N;
+print __("Welcome to Git!\n");
+printf __("The following error occurred: %s\n"), $error;
+```
- Run `perldoc perl/Git/I18N.pm` for more info.
+Run `perldoc perl/Git/I18N.pm` for more info.
-Testing marked strings
-----------------------
+## Testing marked strings
-Git's tests are run under LANG=C LC_ALL=C. So the tests do not need be
+Git's tests are run under `LANG=C LC_ALL=C`. So the tests do not need be
changed to account for translations as they're added.
-PO helper
----------
+## PO helper
-To make the maintenance of XX.po easier, the l10n coordinator and l10n
+To make the maintenance of "XX.po" easier, the l10n coordinator and l10n
team leaders can use a helper program named "git-po-helper". It is a
wrapper to gettext suite, specifically written for the purpose of Git
l10n workflow.
@@ -337,64 +368,84 @@ To build and install the helper program from source, see
Usage for git-po-helper:
- - To start a new language translation:
+- To start a new language translation:
- git-po-helper init XX.po
+ ```shell
+ git-po-helper init XX.po
+ ```
- - To update your XX.po file:
+- To update your "XX.po" file:
- git-po-helper update XX.po
+ ```shell
+ git-po-helper update XX.po
+ ```
- - To check commit log and syntax of XX.po:
+- To check commit log and syntax of "XX.po":
- git-po-helper check-po XX.po
- git-po-helper check-commits
+ ```shell
+ git-po-helper check-po XX.po
+ git-po-helper check-commits
+ ```
Run "git-po-helper" without arguments to show usage.
-Conventions
------------
+## Conventions
There are some conventions that l10n contributors must follow:
-1. The subject of each l10n commit should be prefixed with "l10n: ".
-2. Do not use non-ASCII characters in the subject of a commit.
-3. The length of commit subject (first line of the commit log) should
- be less than 50 characters, and the length of other lines of the
- commit log should be no more than 72 characters.
-4. Add "Signed-off-by" trailer to your commit log, like other commits
- in Git. You can automatically add the trailer by committing with
- the following command:
+- The subject of each l10n commit should be prefixed with "l10n: ".
- git commit -s
+- Do not use non-ASCII characters in the subject of a commit.
-5. Check syntax with "msgfmt" or the following command before creating
- your commit:
+- The length of commit subject (first line of the commit log) should
+ be less than 50 characters, and the length of other lines of the
+ commit log should be no more than 72 characters.
- git-po-helper check-po <XX.po>
+- Add "Signed-off-by" trailer to your commit log, like other commits
+ in Git. You can automatically add the trailer by committing with
+ the following command:
+
+ ```shell
+ git commit -s
+ ```
+
+- Check syntax with "msgfmt" or the following command before creating
+ your commit:
+
+ ```shell
+ git-po-helper check-po <XX.po>
+ ```
+
+- Squash trivial commits to make history clear.
+
+- DO NOT edit files outside "po/" directory.
+
+- Other subsystems ("git-gui", "gitk", and Git itself) have their
+ own workflow. See [Documentation/SubmittingPatches][] for
+ instructions on how to contribute patches to these subsystems.
-6. Squash trivial commits to make history clear.
-7. DO NOT edit files outside "po/" directory.
-8. Other subsystems ("git-gui", "gitk", and Git itself) have their
- own workflow. See [Documentation/SubmittingPatches][] for
- instructions on how to contribute patches to these subsystems.
To contribute for a new l10n language, contributor should follow
additional conventions:
-1. Initialize proper filename of the "XX.po" file conforming to
- iso-639 and iso-3166.
-2. Must complete a minimal translation based on the "po-core/core.pot"
- template. Using the following command to initialize the minimal
- "po-core/XX.po" file:
+- Initialize proper filename of the "XX.po" file conforming to
+ iso-639 and iso-3166.
+
+- Must complete a minimal translation based on the "po-core/core.pot"
+ template. Using the following command to initialize the minimal
+ "po-core/XX.po" file:
- git-po-helper init --core <your-language>
+ ```shell
+ git-po-helper init --core <your-language>
+ ```
-3. Add a new entry in the "po/TEAMS" file with proper format, and check
- the syntax of "po/TEAMS" by running the following command:
+- Add a new entry in the "po/TEAMS" file with proper format, and check
+ the syntax of "po/TEAMS" by running the following command:
- git-po-helper team --check
+ ```shell
+ git-po-helper team --check
+ ```
[git-po-helper/README]: https://github.com/git-l10n/git-po-helper#readme